International Co-operation

international cooperation

International cooperation:

The word “Co-operation” signifies Support. Further we can say its mutual support when we say Development co-operation, and Development co-operation is one of the part of international co-operation which is Global form of assistance given from Developed countries to underdeveloped countries and other way around if we say International cooperation as mutual.

The need of this International cooperation arises primarily because of economic crisis and due to natural calamities and famines and others. For example: Poverty, one of the worldwide prominent problem and issue in which the international co-operation can make important contribution to alleviate and totally eradicate it since this has really impacted indirectly to developed countries themselves in issues of human rights, crime, social injustice and inequality. Now, the question is “Is it possible to eradicate poverty and issues related to it genuinely from all the countries and ensure that everyone feel prosper?” This is itself very challenging now.

Looking in terms of nature of International cooperation, we can see different underlying interest or we can say vested interests along with the international cooperation that the donor country gives to the recipient countries. It’s like give and take relationship among the donor and recipient countries. Sometimes, International cooperation of giving AID could be changing the Under developed countries” government policy itself. This could be high level diplomatic international and strategic relationship that may even feel to the recipient country probing to their sovereignty and solidarity, which can be very sensitive to deal with.

Development cooperation of EU, for example to their recipient countries is politically driven for democratization as well and give assistance in supporting good governance which are their one of the global interest but ultimately for security of their own citizen at first hand because they want peace and protection from Terrorism. And, those who are labeled as terrorist may call themselves as Revolutionary on the other hand. This complex issue to see and understand their strategy as a third separate country, we and What choices we have to make in our development in terms of social security and so on, is very much crucial and complex.

Everything has positive and negative side of it and we can’t deny it because it’s natural in the sense of duality. International cooperation also seems duality in nature. Countries like us should be very capable in terms of dealings and negotiations and we should be able to raise Voices for our own born rights such as in culture and Indigenous practices and others and protect them which are valuable and shouldn’t be wiped out in the name of International development cooperation in developing regions, places and local communities.

So, this is why we say International cooperation is not without controversy.

International co-operation arises in technology transfer, financial aid, Global public goods accessibility and global partnership. Now in Sustainable Development Goals, Level of private partnership has widely addressed. So that sustainable development is only possible through partnership of even local and private bodies within the countries.

So International cooperation may come for supporting entrepreneurship; promoting local products, ideas mobilizing local communities funded by private bodies in collaboration with international funding agency supporting manpower, knowledge and advanced technologies.


Can we include Consciousness as a Development Indicator?

Consciousness as a Development Indicator

Consciousness as a Development Indicator

First of all, I Would like to say that the aim of development, modernization like we see from developed countries in the west – seems not what it is. Development seems multidimensional and holistic. Theories that are made in regards to development, when we see them from realities, we feel if something is missing. That’s not all what we are measuring. But even if we go deepening our critical insight into play, they don’t seem to offer any alternatives. And that is a big Dilemma over all.

To overcome and come out of these Dilemmas, what could be one of the indicators of development if possible to measure it scientifically.  If we are able to measure Consciousness of whole living beings, then that can be multidimensional and holistic as similar to the nature of development we see. And, to explain it more, when we are conscious of development then we feel development. Even if we see something under developing with the lenses of the present development indicators, looking through the lenses of consciousness it may represent different and complete in itself.

So, if we take consciousness as a Indicator, it doesn’t only refer to individualism as in the case of Amartysen capability approach, but it can be refer to global as global consciousness, if we are able to measure and interpret it.

So, with the present world of questioning to Development itself like whether we need development or not, why paradigms have been shifting and lots of variation in alternative development we see – consciousness could be the development indicators to make present world perception of development to complete and make the process in wholeness.

If we go to consciousness taking into consideration, we would be going to address its high energy fields. So, As we come to know that everything is energy and energy has its own field. So, in this perspective if we look development, Development is a high energy field. This can also be included in Human development, culture and power – which are nothing but the high energy fields.

When we are going to address high energy fields, then certainly we would be analyzing in terms of their frequencies of energy fields. From single energy fields to combine with multiple energy fields, we would be looking its combined form and may call it synergy or combined consciousness of same frequencies.

So, we would be able to look into development from subtle level of human existence, then this could be accurate in terms of holistic, multidimensional and energy fields that we are analyzing development in terms of consciousness, energy and frequencies.

Foreign direct investment ( FDI )- Does it actually contribute to Economic growth ?

Foreign direct Investment

FDI itself is not a core and all for the economic growth but it does certainly gives a role of play in accelerating the economic growth. FDI favors in the invested region/country only if certain criteria of environment of market and Trade condition have been fulfilled in favor of FDI inflows

.Foreign direct Investment - Economic growth

“Foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment made by a company or individual in one country in business interests in another country, in the form of either establishing business operations or acquiring business assets in the other country, such as ownership or controlling interest in a foreign company.”
Although high inflow of FDI, in poor countries where if government doesn’t have policy implication renders to FDI objectives or interests, then FDI can’t play a role in primary concerns of poor countries such as poverty alleviation and so on.
In addition, FDI inflow comes together with technology being likely to transfer from the hosted countries to the recipient countries and to run that system of technicality in the recipient country requires skills to be upgraded in the region which could be an obstacle but more challenging in positive terms of growth being concerned.
Furthermore, Multinational Companies, for instances, established in the regions of the country in one terms employs FDI and gives opportunity for employment and gives knowledge & skills of technology being transferred, but in the same way, it discourages and replaced sometimes the domestic investment resources mobilization which by all means one way or another, is not a favorable situation for the sustainable development in the above regions of the country.
In some countries, the above cases have been seen in the countries where they already have idle real resources and FDI plays a role in utilizing those Idle resources to make them contribute to the economy and financing development. This also proved that FDI inflows are there just as an accelerators or acts as a catalyst in their development process.
Since FDI role being as a catalyst only and due to the effect of rendering existing resources from Idle to real, many times leads to country’s economy to be dependent on foreign investment which is certainly a negative effect of FDI in economic growth.
Taking into consideration of sustainable economic growth and take FDI role in the country as a catalytic role, then definitely FDI contributes towards financing development over a long period of time. It creates jobs, boosts overall productivity, enhance competitiveness and entrepreneurships, and eradicate poverty through economic growth and development, and the OECD reckons the same as “increasingly, FDI has been recognized as a powerful engine and major catalyst for achieving development, poverty reducing growth and global integration.”
In World economic situation and prospectus 2016, it has been shown in Chapter III, page 89; there is a high correlation between investment and domestic savings. A few countries have enjoyed surplus on both current and capital accounts. This is associated with accumulation of resource assets – some part of it recycled back to developed countries as capital and formed government bonds in developed country. But this accounts only for capital account liberalizations.
We also have to see and take care of the nature of FDI as it is very volatile in nature. The impact of sudden surges or exits of short term capital flows can be seriously effect in sustainable growth and development. That means if FDI is for the short terms, it could hamper in development process over all. So, International Donors or its financing system of allocating resources for long term sustainable development needs is a must. Then only, it will really help the recipient country by FDI inflows for country’s stable growth.
Thus, we have already seen there are some critics which have been mentioned above already and requirement of some of the criteria for inducing better environment of FDI role to take part in the country.

So, Yes!! The FDI has some limitations and can’t be applied to all circumstances as everyone including human has some flaws and not all perfect on its own, FDI does contributes to economic growth although it has some limitations or flaws in itself.

Reading materials:
1. Nunnenkamp, Peter (2003): FDI as a source of finance for development; CUTS, Jaipur, India
2. UNCTD (2005): FDI as an important source of Finance.
3. Patnaik, Prabhat: FDI as a source of financing development
4. United nation ( 2016): World economic situation and perspective 2016

How do you see Development?

How do we measure development

Development in current scenario

How do you see Development in this current scenario of disparity and inequality of income, status and state of beings?

We see construction of buildings, employment generation, rise in Gross national income in developed countries every decades or so. But, in the same place rich gets richer and poor gets poorer. There are slums on the other sides of lofty building and offices like in india.

Urbanization has been creating from rural regions and this trend is being spreading quickly. It can be due to development of infrastructure and quick access to information. People in the underdeveloped countries are more quickly and easily getting benefits of urbanization than the urbanized places in developed countries. For instance, access to phone calls rates are more cheaper in the urbanization of developing countries than in the urbanization of  developed countries. Local transportation are cheaply available than having your own private vehicle. Disparity exists in terms of experiences we get.

In slums people are not getting enough  health care, education, sanitation and clean drinking water while on the other hand, the case is different. Higher purchasing power due to increase in income and employment, they are getting better in credits from banks, good sanitation, enough foods and drinking water with better education to their children. But, they could live unhealthy, short lived,and have many interrelation problems in the family. ‘ Disparity do exits.

Similarly, in developed countries crime, corruption exits.


How do we measure development?




Development halts in Nepal!!

Blockage of road

Nepal border

Recent Development on energy crisis, and blockade of free movement of vehicles due to it, have urged all Nepalese to look into the alternative energy resources available in the country. Nepalese can’t deny that even if we have found sites of energy availability in Nepal, it will take time of 4 – 5 years sort out all the details regarding this.  Construct the Energy plant and make it reach to the local people is possible only the government invest by giving it priorities and fund flow to this project. The question still hits on our mind, What’s for now? How will we going to bridge the crisis of energy that we are now facing if the scenario of road and border blocks continues? If we think of this situation intricately, then agenda of the individual who are supposed to look after the crisis, their actions if push to run into their mere personal interests and their parties interests, development halts severely, no doubt at all.

We have to look this matter seriously, as the leaders in Nepal hesitate to do so until they see profits of their own and parties. Development in Nepal has been badly affected. Industries halted, Schools closed. Its seems we are locked into this situation inside – the diversity of place made itself difficult. Valley and higher hilly regions are deprived of foods supply and medicines. The energy crisis will remain the crisis until the china borders are permeable easily to the Nepalese valley and mountains. Otherwise, the Nepalese, ourselves have to generate fuels for the country.

There are energy resources within the country itself. There is no doubt on this. News regarding the findings of place where there are reservoir of gases and raw petroleum at front. Some young scientist of Nepal even cracked it out the model for fuel from plants found abundantly in Nepal. We don’t really have to invent the wheel as resources are already in Nepal. A new legislation has to be here in order to make the new policy and implement the plan. The Bureaucracy of Nepalese government should improved. The outside influence to the government should manage well enough to direct into the welfare of the people of Nepal. For optimum stability of the market and service to the people, the black marketing of fuel and commodities should be discouraged and the government should intervene into the situation making the favorable environment for the good entrepreneurship to flourish. The sustainable growth of Nepal yet to be dawn. Tumble down of the economic growth here now we see in the country. Nepal has halted its development now.