Enviornmental Sustainablity & its indicators – index

We live in the environment using its resources. For instance, we breathe in air (oxygen) and excrete out the byproduct (Co2) to the environment. Then, it recycled through the ecosystem of environment generating again fresh air so that we live in and adapt to this living environment of earth. However, Scientists have found the depletion of protective layer (Ozone) surrounding the earth; without which the sustainability of earth and its life forms is being questioned. The availability of  air are still with us but slowly the quality of air we breathe in has been degrading in the major cities and places where huge industrialization has been established. Somehow, environment has still been sustained but we are questioning ourselves how the environmental sustainability can be achieved in better ways and how the change in environment could impact us and how we could measure and maintain the suitable environment to live in. The failure to maintain its sustainability could hamper the peoples’ life socially, economically, politically and geographically.

Definition of environmental sustainability: is the rates of renewable resource harvest, pollution creation, and non-renewable resource depletion that can be continued indefinitely. If they cannot be continued indefinitely then they are not sustainable.

1.[ For renewable resources] The rate of harvest should not exceed the rate of regeneration (sustainable yield);2. [For pollution] The rates of waste generation from projects should not exceed the assimilative capacity of the environment (sustainable waste disposal); and3.[For nonrenewable resources ]The depletion of the nonrenewable resources should require comparable development of renewable substitutes for that resource.

Herman Daly, 1990 A.D

It has two coins terms Environment and the other is sustainability. To look into the indicators which are the measuring tools applied for decision makings are:

  1. Environmental sustainability index (ESI): This indicator is being developed by World economic forum 2002. It represents first step towards analytic driven approach to environmental decision making. The ESI scores are based upon a set of 20 core indicators each of which combines two to eight variables for a total of 68 underlying variables. It permits cross national comparison of environmental progress in systemically and quantitatively.
  2. Well being/stress index: Wellbeing index (WI) combines 36 indicators of health, population, wealth, education, communication, freedom, peace, crime, and equity into the Human Wellbeing index, and 51 indicators of land, biodiversity, water quality and supply, air quality and global atmosphere, and energy and resource use pressures into an Ecosystem Wellbeing index. The two indexes are then combined into the Wellbeing/Stress Index(Prescott-Allen, 2001).

Some other indicators are: Ecological footprint (EF), Living planet index (LPI)

Review of Amartya Sen: Freedom of choice -concept and content

Freedom of choice : Concept and content.

In this lecture, Amartya Sen gave profound argument regarding freedom; its concept and different ways of valuing it. He addressed economic issues in terms of  freedom of choice and seeing it through basic economic notions as individual  well beings, social welfare, living standard, consistent choice and rational behavior in a different perspective if not, otherwise would be  restrictive and limiting in its own nature of discipline.

He not only illustrated the instrumental importance of freedom but also argued about considering its intrinsic worth which we should not ignore while evaluating its role in economic assessment. He mentioned this as a “non-sequitur” i.e. it didn’t follow formal logic to describe the argument of such a change. For instance, it wouldn’t affect a person’s real interest (self worth) if there is reduction of freedom of choice (denial of instrumental importance) and its relevance.

He analyzed positive and negative characteristic of freedom in which a person can choose to do or achieve, on the absence of particular type of restraint that prevent him/her from doing alternatives – that would be positive freedom and the negative view of freedom focuses precisely on absence of a class of restraint that one person may exercise over another. In this, he mentioned Frank Knight remarks as deprivation of freedom being deprivation of “Power.”

The decision on choosing choices is based on purely as constraints on personal behavior and his/her internal tension. This problem of internal tension, which may be resolved by embedding the value of negative freedom in a structure of consequences, for those can coexist in their lives with terrible hardships and miseries, he explained. However, focusing totally on negative characteristic of freedom is inadequate. So, there is clearly a situation for paying attention to over all freedoms which is positive freedoms.

He analyzed positive freedom and relating it with capabilities, he stated judging freedom of choice in terms of peoples command over commodity bundles has limitation in a way that there can be enormous interpersonal variation in relating the actual ability of a person to do. A person’s absolute capabilities to do something relate closely to a person’s relative position of what others in the society possess and use. So, it showed enormous heterogeneity of human being in terms of personal, social and natural characteristics. And, freedom of choice reflects our ability to achieve valuable functioning and well beings in the society. Further precisely, he described the freedom to choose between functioning bundles reflects a person’s “advantage” – his/her “capabilities” to function – that person may able to achieve so called positive freedom.

He illustrated with assessment of different sources such as  World development report 1986, for inter country comparison of GNP per head and Life expectancy,  Cause of death; Life tables for National population ( New York, 1972) for extension of Life expectancy at birth, in England and Wales 1901 -60; Similarly, source from Evolution of Government policies and Expenditure on social welfare in Sri lanka during the 20th Century, Colombo, 1985, comparative food availability per head 1983 India and Sub-Saharan Africa; Source from World development report 1986, China – India Comparative perspective; Life expectancy at birth in China and India; which overall illustrated how role of intervention of public policy and its implications on freedom to live had achieved and changed quite radically as a instrumental role of freedom in different countries  with its relevance to social reforms and political freedom as well. They focus on freedom as diverse instrumental roles as well as having intrinsic importance.

However, he slightly shifted his argument giving different perspective explaining that if freedom is only instrumentally valued, then valuation of the person’s capability to function would be no different from evaluating the chosen functioning bundle in the respective capability set with the fact that the person’s actual functioning to choose need not to be coincide with evaluation of the chosen element of it because “choosing” may itself an important functioning.

So, refining its notion of function that simple modification gives many implications, in particularly its impact on ideas of consistent choice and rational behavior under certainty and uncertainty which are the central ideas of modern economic theory. His concepts of refinement its notion of functioning actually violated it and the problem arises as the description of living is not just formal but deeply substantive, he added. So this refinement can add to the interest of enterprenial methodology as he justified before his concluding remarks. He stated at the end that the foundational importance of freedom may well be the far reaching substantive problem neglected in standard economics.

In his concluding remarks, he briefly addressed few issues which may be the matter of attention.

Firstly, the intrinsic importance of freedom of choice has to be different with its instrumental relevance while it is undeniable of having role of freedom as a means to other side. Even though, its intrinsic value  has often neglected in the standard literature( preferring to focus on what Milton Friedman calls “ the fecundity of freedom”)

Secondly, It is possible to give special importance to negative freedom even when over all positive freedom is also valued.

Thirdly, the perspective of concentrating exclusively on negative freedom – ignoring positive freedom is deeply vulnerable to external critiques.

Fourthly, the choice of the space in which positive freedom is to be characterized and assessed is one of the great analytical interest and practical importance. In this context, the alternative for real incomes, primary goods, and functioning and capabilities were examined and assessed.

Fifthly, the role of public intervention in promoting positive freedom in developing countries was discussed and illustrated drawing on international comparison specifically China, India, Sri lanka and Sub-Saharan Africa, ( and also of Britain from earlier period.)

Finally, Issues of methodology in an enterprise raised to be assessed in the context of “choosing” as an important functioning, and the characterization of chosen alternatives in a “refined” way which is a substantive problem neglected in standard economics.

 

My first day at MICD before really something had happened!

Last friday at MICD, We had an orientation meeting. We got an overview of syllabus and schedule of the classes to be held during the 2- year course. The targets that are to be made in developing skilled and knowledgeable required human resource in Development sectors was being over viewed. The resource persons, and teachers’ name was being listed out. The links and establishment of this course with University in Pavia, Italy had been mentioned. Motivating and interesting talks from Suresh sir, Dinesh Bhuju sir,

AT THE HALL OF MICD
Orientation Meeting at MICD premises

The meeting is ended with talks, teas and cookies in titled as “Getting know each others.” The meeting was over with mentioning to meet in the classes starting from coming Sunday on 6:30 am.

It was about 5:00 pm when I left the MICD on one of the participants Bike’s back seat. He seemed to be a teacher teaching Accounts in Plus-2 schools. We rode with discussing about the course we are taking part is being good and helps to develop skills and knowledge indeed. Later I come to know his name is Baral ji.

On Sunday, I was early to class at 6:15 am. I thought I have to take some teas. So, instead of entering the MICD, I looked outside for any shops opened. The one next to MICD was being closed. May be it was being too early morning. One of the woman was sweeping at the side of pavement of road. I asked her if any tea shop was there near by. She replied giving me direction – Left hand side down the road. I followed the direction and found underground shop lighted. I asked the old man there if tea was available. He said Yes. I was talkative with asking about the Bus of Mahanagar was being late if I have to reach there at that hours. He asked me with confidence if I had been there for MICD. I said Yes, How did you know? I responded and asked.  He told, students from there and even teacher comes there for tea. He named one of the teachers’ name as Wagle sir. I was then unaware  of the name he was mentioning. Then I kept Mum! I drank tea and looked for the watch. It was already 6:30 am. I hurriedly entered the MICD and staired up to the Hall where the participants was seating in U-shaped table almost full. I, myself lifted up a chair from the racked up chairs at the side and seated myself next to one of the lady where a little space was there,  and who was seating in the direction front to the projector. The teacher had not yet arrived then. It was the first day of my participation before really something had started.